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Vienna  opening

The below are the openings discussed in the next portions:

  1. Zhuraviev CounterGambit

  2. Hamper-Mietner Variation

  3. Giraffe Attack

  4. Omaha Gambit

  5. Fyfe Gambit

  6. Philidor CounterGambit

  7. Quelle Gambit

  8. Fraser-Minckwitz Variation

  9. Zukertort Defense

  10. Paulsen Defense

  11. Soerensen Defense

  12. Cunningham Defense

  13. Hamppe-Muzio Gambit

  14. Pierce Gambit

  15. Hamppe-Allgaier-Thoroid Gambit

  16. Mariotti Gambit

  17. Polluck Gambit

  18. Erben Gambit

  19. Mengarini Variation

  20. Oxford Variation

  21. Reversed Spanish

  22. Bishop Variation

  23. Eifel Gambit

  24. Boden-Kieseritzky Gambit

  25. Alekhine Variation

  26. Adams Gambit

  27. Three Knight’s Variation

  28. Steinitz Variation

  29. Breyer Variation

  30. Kaufmann Variation

  31. Bardeleben Variation

  32. My Views

1.Zhuraviev CounterGambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Bb4

  3. Qg4 Nf6

In the Zhuraviev CounterGambit, black counters white’s attack with the queen by sacrificing the pawn for a lead in development. White is not able to castle on the king side and if white wants to castle on the queen side , it takes a lot of time as the position is such that the queen is placed on d2 when the rook develops with a tempo on g6 square. There is also a pressure on the c3 knight as d3 has to be played at the right moment allowing d5 as the knight will then be pinned. The games proceed with black trying not to exchange as many pieces as possible inorder to reduce the chance of a losing a game.

The below game shows  how to proceed further in the game after the pawn is sacrificed:

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Bb4 3.Qg4 Nf6 4.Qxg7 Rg8 5.Qh6 Nc6 6.d3 Rg6 7.Qd2 d5 8.exd5 Nxd5 9.Nge2 Be6 10.a3 Be7 11.b3 Qd7 12.Bb2 0-0-0 13.h4 Nxc3 14.Nxc3 Nd4 15.Ne2 Bd5 16.Nxd4 exd4 17.0-0-0 Ra6 18.Qf4 Bxa3 19.Bxa3 Rxa3 20.Kb2










Black has got back the pawn with an added advantage

Qe7 21.Be2 Qxe2 22.Kxa3 Qxc2 23.Rb1 Rd6








A blunder by black!!

24.Qxd6 cxd6 25.Rbc1

2.Hamper-Mietner Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Bc5

  3. Na4

Hamper-Mietner Opening has been played at a GrandMaster level quite frequently, white’s king rolls on the board and a precise play is required to be played by both black and white to stabilize the position. It is a double edged position and a player may sometimes give in to the huge pressure of his king being out in the open or black may give in to the pressure of his lost piece.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Bc5 3.Na4 Bxf2+ 4.Kxf2 Qh4+ 5.Ke3 Qf4+ 6.Kd3 d5 7.Kc3 Qxe4 8.Kb3


A chance for white to improve his position by blockading the queen’s path towards  the white king.

9.a3 Qxa4+ 10.Kxa4 Nc5+









A winning procedure would be getting the king into black’s camp further.But….

a5+ 12.Kxc5 Ne7 13.Bb5+ Kd8 14.Bc6

A Sacrifice!!

b6+ 15.Kb5 Nxc6 16.Kxc6 Bb7+ 17.Kb5 Ba6+ 18.Kc6 Bb7+ 19.Kb5 Ba6+ 20.Kc6 Bb7+ 21.Kb5

And a repetition!

3.Giraffe Attack

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Bc5

  3. Qg4


This opening is similar to zhuraviev countergambit but with the bishop on the c5 square rather than on the b4 square. The difference is now the bishop on the c5 is pressuring the f2 square. In the giraffe attack unlike zhuraviev attack if the pawn on the g7 is taken then it’s already completely lost for white as after a few moves when the rook attacks the queen on h6, the queen cannot return to the e3 square because of the bishop and white queen is almost trapped.

So here, the best way to proceed would be not grabbing the g7 pawn and white might even try castling on the queenside and the game continues with early queen development.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Bc5 3.Qg4 Qf6 4.Nf3 Ne7 5.Qg3 d6 6.Bc4 h6 7.Na4 Nd7 8.0-0 c6 9.Nxc5 Nxc5 10.Re1 Be6 11.Bf1 0-0-0 12.d4 exd4 13.Bf4 Qg6 14.Nxd4 Nxe4









This move might lead to dangerous position for black as white might in a few moves sacrifice the rook for two pieces with the black pawns in an unstable position.

15.Qxg6 Nxg6 16.Nxe6 fxe6 17.Rxe4 d5 18.Rb4 a5 19.Ra4 b5 20.Bd3 bxa4 21.Bxg6 Kd7 22.Be5 Rb8 23.Bxb8 Rxb8 24.b3 a3 25.f4 Kd6 26.Kf2 Rf8 27.Ke3 Rf6 28.Bd3 c5 29.g4 Rf8 30.h4 Rb8 31.c4 a4 32.bxa4 Rb4 33.Rb1 Rxa4 34.Rb6+ Kd7 35.cxd5 c4









And white is simply a piece and never lost an advantage after Nxe4.

4.Omaha Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 d6

  3. f4

In the Omaha Gambit, black does not develop his dark squared bishop and white tries to take advantage of it and expands on the kingside by moving his f pawn into the attack. Though it may seem that white seems to be dangerously expanding with the f pawn, the absence of bishop on the forward position helps white in implementing this idea.

1.e4 d6 2.Nc3 e5 3.f4 exf4 4.Nf3 Ne7 5.d4 Ng6 6.Bd3 Be7 7.0-0 Nd7 8.Nd5 Ndf8 9.Qe1 Ne6 10.Nxe7 Qxe7 11.h4 0-0 12.h5 Nh8 13.e5 d5 14.c4 dxc4 15.Bxc4 Rd8 16.Bxe6 Qxe6 17.Qh4 Rd5 18.Bxf4 Qg4 19.Rac1 Qxh4 20.Nxh4 c6 21.Be3 Rb5 22.b3 h6 23.Rc3 Ra5 24.a4 Rd5 25.Nf5 Bxf5 26.Rxf5 Re8 27.g4 Re6 28.Kg2 a6 29.Kg3 g6 30.Rf3 gxh5 31.gxh5 f6 32.Rxf6 Rxf6 33.exf6 Rxh5 34.Kg4 Rd5 35.Bxh6 Rxd4+ 36.Kf3









The turning point of the game where white starts to slowly misplay his position.

 Kf7 37.Be3 Rd6 38.Bg5 Rd5 39.Kg4 Kg6 40.Bh4 Nf7 41.Kf3 Rh5 42.Bg3 Kxf6 43.Re3 Rd5 44.Ke2 Ne5 45.Re4 Nd3









White’s pawns are weak and after the rook exchange slowly looses both pawns on the queen side.

46.Re3 Nc1+ 47.Kf3 Kf5 48.Bb8 Rd4 49.Rc3 Rd3+ 50.Rxd3 Nxd3 51.Ke3 Nc5 52.Kd4 Nxb3+ 53.Kc4 Nc1 54.a5 Ke4 55.Kc5 Kd3 56.Be5 Nb3+ 57.Kb4 Nd2 58.Kc5 Ne4+








And white resigned as black captures the remaining last pawn by still holding on to the two pawns where white may have to sacrifice the bishop for a single pawn.

5.Fyfe Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. d4

Fyfe Gambit has not been played much at the top level where he simply sacrifices a pawn for a lead in development. White may simply develop his bishops first and try to get back the sacrificed pawn and black at the right moment needs to give back the extra pawn to balance the position.

6.Philidor CounterGambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. d4 f5








In the Philidor Counter Gambit black counters white’s sacrifice with a counter sacrifice by making the move f5. Both the players have an opportunity to either go for a lead in development or recover the sacrificed pawns in the first instant.




7.Quelle Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. f4 Bc5

  4. fxe5 d6









In the Quelle Gambit, white responds to the black’s development of the bishop by capturing the pawn on the e5. Black plays ahead and provides more opportunity for white to go on pawn grabbing spree. If captured, then black counters it with a lead in development which is essential in a game.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.f4 Bc5 4.fxe5 d6 5.exd6 Qxd6 6.Nf3 Bg4 7.d3 0-0-0 8.Be2 f5 9.Bg5 Nf6 10.Qd2 fxe4 11.Nxe4 Nxe4 12.dxe4 Bxf3 13.Qxd6 Rxd6 14.gxf3 Nd4 15.Bd1 Ne6 16.Bh4 Rb6 17.b3 h5 18.Bf2 Bxf2+ 19.Kxf2 Rd6









The opportunity for covering the entry of the black rook is given up.

Rd2 21.Ke3 Rxc2 22.Rhc1






Rxc1 .Exchanging the only active rook in the black’s camp

23.Rxc1 Rf8 24.Rg1 Rf6 25.Bc4 b6 26.e5 Rh6 27.f4 Kb7 28.Bd5+ Ka6 29.Bxe6 Rxe6 30.Rxg7 c5 31.Ke4









And the two pawns easily roll down the board to the queening square.




8.Fraser-Minckwitz Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. f4 exf4

  4. d4 Qh4

  5. Ke2 b6








Although this opening seems quite scary to be played which violates all the rules of chess of not playing with the queen in the beginning, there have been quite a few games which have been played at the top level. White’s main idea is center expanse. Any slight misplay by white already is a huge advantage for black as in the beginning of the game, the basic rules of chess have been violated.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.f4 exf4 4.d4 Qh4+ 5.Ke2 b6 6.Nb5 Ba6 7.c4 0-0-0 8.Nf3 Qe7 9.Kf2 Nf6 10.Bd3 Nxe4+ 11.Bxe4 Qxe4 12.Re1 Qf5 13.Qa4 Bb7 14.Kg1 a6 15.Nc3 Nxd4 16.Nxd4 Qg4 17.Qc2 Bc5 18.Rd1 Rhe8 19.Nd5 Re2 20.Ne3 Bxd4 21.Rxd4 fxe3









And white was unable to make up for the weakness already present in the position got out of the opening.




9.Zukertort Defense

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. f4 exf4

  4. d4 Qh4

  5. Ke2 d5

In the Zukertort Defense, black goes for the more active setup with the move d5. If white captures the pawn with the knight with the intention of forking the king, it is not possible as black castles queen side without allowing for white to counter and thereby giving a lead in development for black.


1.f4 e5 2.e4 exf4 3.Nc3 Nc6 4.d4 Qh4+ 5.Ke2 d5 6.Nxd5

Nxd5 does not give white much advantage as black is ready to sacrifice a pawn but if white captures with pawn then white is asking black for an immediate action from his end.

Bg4+ 7.Nf3 0-0-0 8.Bxf4 Nf6 9.Bxc7 Rxd5 10.exd5








A subtle move played which allows massive attack on the white king.

Bxf3+ 11.gxf3 Nxd4+ 12.Kd3 Kxc7 13.Qe1 Nxf3 14.Qxh4 Nxh4 15.c4 Bc5 16.Bh3 Ng6 17.Bf5 Kd6 18.Kc3 b5 19.b4 Be3 20.c5+ Kxd5 21.Rad1+ Kc6 22.Rd6+ Kc7 23.Bd3 Ne5 24.Re1 Bd2+








Giving back two pieces for a rook which does not favour black.

25.Kxd2 Nf3+ 26.Ke2 Nxe1 27.Kxe1 Rd8 28.Rxd8 Kxd8 29.Bxb5 Nd5 30.a3 a5








A blunder!

31.Bc4 Ne3 32.Bb3 axb4 33.axb4 f5 34.b5 f4 35.Kf2 Nf5 36.b6 Nd4 37.Ba4 g5 38.c6 Kc8 39.c7 Ne6 40.Bc2 Nxc7 41.bxc7 g4 42.Bf5+ Kxc7 43.Bxg4 Kd6








And the h pawn creates a victory path for white.





10.Paulsen Defense

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. f4 exf4

  4. d4 Qh4

  5. Ke2 d6








The move …d6 does not call white to an immediate action thereby allowing white to prepare for the onslaught towards its side. Also it enables white to fortify the center.If black player would like to play a slow game creating threats then this is the strategy needed to follow.

1.e4 d6 2.Nc3 e5 3.f4 exf4 4.d4 Qh4+ 5.Ke2 Nc6 6.Nf3 Bg4 7.Bxf4 0-0-0 8.Bg3 Qh5 9.Kf2 Nf6 10.Be2 d5 11.exd5 Nxd5 12.Nxd5 Qxd5 13.c3 Bd6 14.Qb3 Bxg3+ 15.hxg3 Qf5 16.Rad1 h5 17.Bd3 Qf6 18.Rde1 Be6 19.Qb5 Rd5 20.Qa4








Black is ready with all his forces couping towards the white king.

Ra5 21.Qc2 g5 22.Kg1 h4








Neutralizing some of the pawns giving white a chance for a counter and create constant threat on h4 pawn.

23.gxh4 gxh4 24.Be4 h3 25.b3 hxg2 26.Rxh8+ Qxh8 27.Qxg2 Bh3 28.Qh2 Qg7+ 29.Kh1 Rh5








Provoking white with the move which white misses out.











A single move which reversed the advantage.

Qh8 31.Rg3 Bg2+ 32.Kxg2 Rxh2+ 33.Nxh2 Nd8 34.Bf5+ Kb8 35.Nf3 a6 36.Ne5 Qf6








Allowing white to finish the game with a fork.


11.Soerensen Defense

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. f4 exf4

  4. d4 Qh4

  5. Ke2 g5








Black opts to save his f4 pawn with g5 but white counters the pawn advances by immediate development of his pieces and creating attack on the weak pawns. Though white looses a lot of pawns, it is difficult to counter white’s counter so easily.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.f4 exf4 4.d4 Qh4+ 5.Ke2 g5 6.Nf3 Qh5 7.g4 fxg3 8.Bxg5 d6








Threatening to pin the knight further hindering white’s play.

9.Bg2 Bg4 10.Be3 gxh2 11.Qe1 Nf6 12.Qg3 Rg8 13.Qxh2 Qxh2 14.Rxh2 0-0-0 15.Kd3 d5 16.Nxd5 Nxd5 17.exd5 Nb4+ 18.Kd2 Nxd5 19.Rxh7 Bf5 20.Bh3 Bxh3 21.Rxh3 Rg2+ 22.Kd3 Nb4+ 23.Kc4 Nxc2 24.Ne1 Nxe3+ 25.Rxe3 Rxb2 26.Nd3 Rh2 27.Re4 f5 28.Rf4 Bh6 29.Rxf5 Rh4 30.Nc5 Rhxd4+ 31.Kb3 R4d5 32.Raf1 Rxf5 33.Rxf5 b6 34.Ne4 Rd3+ 35.Kc4 Ra3 36.Rf2 a5 37.Rh2 Bg7 38.Rg2 Ra4+ 39.Kd3 Rd4+ 40.Ke3 Rd7 41.Rg6 Kb7 42.Ng3 Bd4+ 43.Ke4 Bf2 44.Nf5 b5 45.Rg2 Bc5 46.Rb2 c6






And the game is lost because of the pawn majority on the queen side.






12.Cunningham Defense

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. f4 exf4

  4. Nf3 Be7








Since the knight is already present on the f3 square, black does not have an opportunity to get his queen out now. So the next idea is to get the bishop out and guard with queen in order to attack the weak f2 square. As white player, you should be ready play with a pawn loss for center control and piece developments.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.f4 exf4 4.Nf3 Be7 5.Bc4 Bh4+ 6.g3 fxg3 7.0-0 Nh6 8.d4 d6 9.Bxh6 gxh6 10.Bxf7+ Kxf7 11.Nxh4+ Kg7 12.hxg3 Qg5 13.Qd3 Rg8 14.Nd5 Kh8 15.Kh2 Be6 16.c3 Rae8 17.Rf3 Bxd5 18.exd5 Ne7 19.Raf1 Ng6 20.Nxg6+ hxg6 21.c4 Re7 22.Kg2 Rge8 23.Rf8+ Rxf8 24.Rxf8+ Kg7 25.Rf4 Rf7 26.Rxf7+ Kxf7 27.Qe4 Qf5 28.Qe2 Qf6 29.Qe4 h5 30.b3 Qf5 31.Qe3 g5 32.Qe2 g4 33.Qe3








After white makes the simple mistake black is able to grab the a2 pawn and will be able to comfortably get back to the defense with continuous checks.

 Qc2+ 34.Qf2+ Qxf2+ 35.Kxf2 Kg6 36.Ke3 Kg5 37.Kf2 h4 38.gxh4+ Kxh4 39.Kg2 b6 40.b4 g3 41.c5 Kg4








And the king and pawn endgame is lost for white.




13.Hamppe-Muzio Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. f4 exf4

  4. Nf3 g5

  5. Bc4 g4

  6. 0-0








Hamppe-Muzio Gambit involves a pawn storm by black whereas white will lead in development and white sometimes may even sacrifice a piece for a lead in the attack. Having said that in order for it to be a success white needs to play the game actively accounting for the loss of a piece.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.f4 exf4 4.Nf3 g5 5.Bc4 g4 6.0-0 gxf3 7.Bxf7+ Kxf7 8.Qxf3 Bh6 9.d4 Nxd4







A simple pawn grab by black allows white to get a decisive advantage and from then on an imminent victory.

10.Qh5+ Kg7 11.Bxf4 d6 12.Be5+








And Rf7 is a checkmate on the next move if Nf6 is not played.




14.Pierce Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. f4 exf4

  4. Nf3 g5

  5. d4








In the Pierce Gambit white opts for a center control over piece development(bishop). Similar to the Hamppe-Muzio Gambit, white might also sacrifice a piece for  an accelerated attack on the black king. Though might seem risky in the initial phases, can be played in blitz and bullet which involves high level preparedness to face such an attack.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.f4 exf4 4.Nf3 g5 5.d4 g4 6.Bc4 gxf3 7.Qxf3 d5








A simple move which leads towards equality though white is a piece down.

8.Bxd5 Nxd4 9.Bxf7+ Kxf7 10.Qh5+ Kg7 11.0-0 Nf6 12.Qg5+ Kf7 13.Bxf4 Rg8 14.Qh4 Rg4 15.Qf2 Ne6 16.Be3 Kg7 17.Rad1 Qe7 18.Rd5 Kg8 19.Rf5 Bg7 20.h3 Nxe4 21.Nd5 Qd6 22.Qe1 Rg6 23.Qh4 N6g5 24.Bf4 Nxh3+ 25.Kh1 Nxf4 26.Ne7+ Qxe7








 White’s attack is thus neutralized and if Qxe7,then Rh6 and it is a lost game.





15.Hamppe-Allgaier-Thoroid Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. f4 exf4

  4. Nf3 g5

  5. h4 g4

  6. Ng5 h6

  7. Nxf7 Kxf7

  8. d4








Hamppe-Algaier-Thoroid Gambit involves a sacrifice which leads to the king out in the open. Though there are suggestions that it is a complete loss for white under the pressure of time if playing a blitz game if not fully prepared the results might go either way.

1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.Nc3 g5 5.h4 g4 6.Ng5 h6 7.Nxf7 Kxf7 8.d4 f3 9.Bc4+ d5 10.Bxd5+ Kg7 11.gxf3








Opening up the already opened kingside which gives an opportunity for white.

Bb4 12.Be3 Nf6 13.Bc4 Qe7 14.Qe2 gxf3 15.Qxf3 Bg4 16.Rg1 h5 17.e5 Nxe5








A wrong sacrifice going after the two central pawns

18.dxe5 Qxe5 19.0-0-0 Bc5 20.Rd7+ Nxd7 21.Qf7#









And a checkmate!!






16.Mariotti Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nc6

  3. g3 Bc5

  4. Bg2 h5

  5. Nf3 h4








The Mariotti Gambit has been played at the utmost top level where black goes for the most aggressive rook pawn movements after which the black goes ahead and becomes exchange down. Though white is exchange up the forward positions and the attacking position of the black pieces holds it’s ground.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.g3 Bc5 4.Bg2 h5 5.Nf3 h4 6.Nxh4 Rxh4 7.gxh4 Qxh4 8.d4 Nxd4 9.Nd5 d6 10.Ne3








Unprovoked Passivity is not advisable for any player as it may lead to a disadvantage.

Nf6 11.c3 Bg4 12.Nxg4 Nxg4 13.Rf1 Ne6








Black on the attack should proceed with the idea of attack on the rise!

14.Qe2 Nxh2 15.Rh1 Ke7 16.Kd1 Rh8 17.f3







A topsy turvy game with black having the advantage with the move.

Qg3 18.Bd2 Bf2 19.Bf1 Rh4 20.Qd3 Nc5 21.Qe2 Nxf3 22.Rxh4 Nxh4 23.Kc2 Nf3 24.Rd1 Nxd2 25.Rxd2 Be3








And black has a 3 pawns and a minor piece for a rook enough to win.




17.Polluck Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. g3 Bc5

  4. Bg2 Nc6

  5. Nge2 d5

  6. exd5








Polluck Gambit involves the temporary sacrifice of a pawn which can be aimed at recovering in the future. The bishop is lined upon the g2-h8 diagonal provides the much needed support for the advanced pawn. This gambit has been played minimally at the top level chess.





18.Erben Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. g3 d5

  4. exd5 c6

In the Erben Gambit, a pawn is sacrificed by black for speedy placement of the pieces eyeing towards the white king. This opening has been played in shorter formats at the utmost top level chess though may not be effective in the longer formats as it may be countered properly.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.g3 d5 4.exd5 c6 5.d6 Bxd6 6.Bg2 0-0 7.d3 Re8 8.Nf3 h6 9.0-0 Na6 10.Re1 Bf5 11.a3 Nc7 12.b3 Qd7 13.Bb2 Rad8 14.Nd2 Bg4 15.Bf3 Qf5 16.Nce4 Bxf3 17.Nxf3 Nxe4 18.Rxe4 Nd5 19.Nh4 Qe6 20.Qf3 Nf6 21.Re2 Qd5 22.Rae1 Nd7 23.Qg4 Nf6 24.Qf5 Nd7 25.c4 Qe6 26.Qxe6 Rxe6 27.Nf5 Nc5 28.Nxd6 Rdxd6 29.Bxe5 Rxd3 30.b4 Nd7 31.Bf4 Rxe2 32.Rxe2 Rxa3 33.Re8+ Kh7 34.Rd8








This creates an opportunity for black to proceed further with the attack on white pawn.

Nb6 35.c5 Nd5 36.Rd7 Nxf4 37.gxf4 a5 38.bxa5









Giving black a passer on the queen side.

Kg6 39.Rxb7 Rxa5 40.Kg2 Rxc5 41.Kg3 Rc3+ 42.f3 Kf6 43.h4 h5 44.Rc7 Rc5 45.Rc8 g6 46.Rc7 Ke6 47.Rc8 Kd7 48.Rf8 Rf5 49.Ra8 Kd6 50.Ra4 c5 51.Kf2 Kd5 52.Ke3 Rf6 53.Ra7 Re6+ 54.Kd3 c4+ 55.Kd2 Rf6 56.Rd7+ Kc5 57.Rc7+ Kb5 58.Ke3 Kb4 59.Rb7+ Kc3 60.Ra7 Kc2 61.Ra2+ Kb3 62.Ra7 c3 63.Rb7+ Kc2 64.Rc7 Kb2 65.Kd3 Rd6+ 66.Ke2 c2 67.Rb7+ Kc1 68.Rxf7 Re6+ 69.Kf2 Rb6 70.f5 Kb2 71.fxg6 c1Q 72.g7 Qc5+ 73.Kf1 Qc4+








And the rook is lost.





19.Mengarini Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. a3








If a player would like to wait for opponent’s move to implement his plan, then a3 is the way to proceed in a game. Though the idea may also be to plant the white light square bishop on the a2 square when Na5 is played. Another option is also to go b4 and fianchetto the bishop on the b2 square. We can observe in the game what is white’s plan after playing a3 in the below game:

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.a3 Bc5 4.Nf3 d6 5.Bc4 Nc6 6.d3 h6 7.Na4 Bb6 8.h3 Be6 9.Bxe6 fxe6 10.0-0 0-0 11.c3 Qe8 12.Nxb6 axb6 13.Qe2 Nh5 14.d4 exd4 15.cxd4 e5 16.d5 Ne7 17.g3 Qg6 18.Kh2 Rf6 19.Nh4 Qf7 20.Be3 Rf8 21.Rac1 c6 22.dxc6 bxc6 23.a4 c5 24.Qb5








Major black activity is on the kingside and white jumps ahead towards the black’s queenside.

g5 25.Nf5 Nxf5 26.exf5 Rxf5 27.Qxb6 Nxg3 28.Kxg3 Rf3+ 29.Kg2 Qf5 30.Qb3+ Kh8 31.Kg1 Qxh3 32.Qc4 Rg3+









An error by black which further leads to a draw

33.fxg3 Qxg3+ 34.Kh1









A perpetual!





20.Oxford Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. f4 d5

  4. fxe5 Nxe4

  5. d3

Oxford Variation can be played as a surprise where after the move d3, the game might actually get heated up as a result of the very aggressive move Qh4 attacking the black king. Though at the first glance white doesn’t seem to have any countering move, white has to sacrifice his king side rook and counter it by trying to grab black’s queenside rook. It’s a double edged gameplay which might be advantageous for those players who dislike one sided gameplay.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.d3 Nxc3 6.bxc3 d4 7.Nf3 Nc6 8.Be2 Be7 9.0-0 0-0 10.Bb2 Bc5 11.Kh1 Re8 12.cxd4 Bxd4 13.Nxd4 Nxd4 14.Bh5 g6 15.Qd2 c5 16.Bf3 Rxe5 17.Rab1 Be6 18.Bxd4 cxd4 19.Rxb7 Qa5 20.Qf2 Rd8 21.Qh4 Bxa2 22.Rxa7 Qxa7 23.Qxd8+ Kg7 24.h3 Qc5 25.Be4 Re7 26.Ra1 Ra7 27.Qb8 Qc3 28.Rf1 Ra5 29.Qd8 Be6 30.Qf6+ Kg8 31.Qd8+





21.Reversed Spanish

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. Bc4 Bb4

Reversed Spanish Opening involves black playing the move Bb4, and on eyeing the c3 knight though white can proceed ahead with his development as the knight grabbing a pawn is not really a threat as white again gets a counter to take back the pawn.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Bc4 Bb4 4.Nf3 0-0 5.0-0 d6 6.Nd5 Be6 7.d4 Bxd5 8.exd5 e4 9.Nh4 c6 10.c3 Ba5 11.Bg5 Nbd7 12.Nf5 Nb6 13.f3 h6 14.Bh4 e3









Giving up the pawn on the d3 square.

15.Qd3 Nxc4 16.Qxc4 Qd7 17.Nxe3 Nh5 18.Rae1 Bd8 19.Bxd8 Rfxd8 20.Qd3 Rab8 21.b3 Nf6 22.dxc6 bxc6 23.Re2 a5 24.Rfe1 g6 25.d5 Nxd5 26.Nxd5 cxd5 27.Qxd5 Qa7+ 28.Kh1 Qc5 29.Qd2 d5 30.Re5 a4 31.bxa4 h5 32.f4 Rbc8 33.f5 Qxc3 34.Qh6









And an incoming checkmate!





22.Bishop Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. Bc4 Bc5

The Bishop’s Variation Opening is seen more often in the top level chess game. This opening involves usually a positional play with no immediate attack on either side. As the position improves, the game gets more interesting positionally.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.d3 d6 5.Na4 Bb6 6.Nxb6 axb6 7.Ne2 Nc6 8.Nc3 Na5 9.Bg5 Nxc4 10.dxc4 Be6 11.b3 h6 12.Bh4 g5 13.Bg3 h5 14.h4 g4 15.Qd2 Qe7 16.a4 Rg8 17.0-0-0 0-0-0 18.Kb2 Bd7 19.Ra1 Bc6 20.Rhe1 Kd7 21.Re2 Ra8 22.Qe1 Qe6 23.Rd1 Kc8 24.Re3 Nd7 25.f3 Nc5 26.f4 exf4 27.Bxf4 f6 28.Rd5 Rh8 29.Bh2 Nd7 30.Rf5 Kb8 31.Ne2 Qe8 32.Nd4 Qg6








A simple move which is blunder as it vacates the key d6 square for the white knight










A move equalizing the position for both players

Re8 34.Bxd6 Bxe4 35.Rf2 f5 36.Bg3 Ra5 37.Nb5 Ne5 38.Rxe4 fxe4 39.Bxe5 Rxe5 40.Rf8+ Re8 41.Qe7









And the mate is inevitable.






23.Eifel Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. Bc4 Bc5

  4. Nge2 b5

The Eifel Gambit involves black sacrificing the pawn on the b5 square, which is similar sacrifice in evans gambit where white sacrifices the pawn on the b4 square. In this position black wants a better center control and active pieces and space on the queen side.





24.Boden-Kieseritzky Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. Bc4 Nxe4

  4. Nf3









Boden-Kieseritzky Gambit is the opening where white gives up the key central pawn and gets on with the development of his pieces. If black tries to hold on to the pawn then a dangerous attack ensues by white. Hence under favorable situation the pawn has to be given back or if able to outsmart white and hold onto the pawn ,the endgame then favors black.

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Bc4 Nxe4 4.Nc3 Nxc3 5.dxc3 f6 6.Nh4 g6 7.f4 Qe7 8.f5 Qg7 9.fxg6 hxg6 10.Qg4 Kd8 11.Qg3 g5 12.Nf5 Qh7 13.0-0 c6 14.Bd3 d5








An opportunity for white to create a threat.

15.Nd6 e4








Opening up the white queen’s diagonal and thus allowing white to implement his attack

16.Rxf6 exd3 17.Bxg5 Be7 18.Nf7+






25.Alekhine Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. Bc4 Nxe4

  4. Qh5 Nd6

  5. Bb3 Be7

  6. Nf3 Nc6

  7. Nxe5









Alekhine’s Variation is a King’s Pawn opening where queen is brought into the attack of the black king initially. This would involve an attack as the black king side has not many major pieces in defense. Thus the attack might prove useful to certain extent though black still has sufficient defenders of the f7 pawn where the attack is at it’s peak.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Bc4 Nxe4 4.Qh5 Nd6 5.Bb3 Be7 6.Nf3 Nc6 7.Nxe5 g6 8.Qe2 Nd4 9.Qd3 Nxb3 10.axb3 Nf5 11.0-0 d6 12.Nf3 c6 13.b4 0-0 14.b5 d5 15.bxc6 bxc6 16.Re1 a5 17.Qe2 Bb4 18.d3










Allowing the bishop to be exchanged for the rook

 d4 19.Ne4 Bxe1 20.Qxe1 f6









With this move black has created a unprovoked weakness

21.b3 Be6 22.Bd2 Bd5 23.Bxa5 Qe7 24.Ra4 Qe6 25.h3 Rfe8 26.Nxd4 Nxd4 27.Rxd4 f5 28.c4 fxe4 29.cxd5 cxd5 30.dxe4 dxe4 31.Bd2 Qxb3 32.Rxe4 Qf7 33.Bc3 h5








The bishop and queen are quite sufficient to create a draw as the black’s king is also open and white too has enough counter attack.





26.Adams Gambit

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. Bc4 Nxe4

  4. Qh5 Nd6

  5. Bb3 Nc6

  6. d4

The idea behind this opening is to create an open diagonal for the bishop on the c1 and attack the queen on d8 and create a pressure on the king side. Though not played much at the top level, has a bit of scope at the amateur level.





27.Three Knight’s Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. Bc4 Nc6

The Three Knight’s Variation allows black to get his knight to be exchanged for the light squared bishop which is powerful and eyeing the f7 square. Also the idea might be to open the center with d5 after the minor piece exchange.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.d3 Na5 5.Qf3 Nxc4 6.dxc4 Bb4 7.Nge2 d6 8.h3 Be6 9.b3 Nd7 10.0-0 Bxc3 11.Nxc3 0-0 12.Qg3 f5 13.Bg5 Qe8 14.exf5 Rxf5 15.Nb5 Qc8 16.Rae1 Nf8 17.f4 a6 18.Nc3 exf4 19.Rxf4 Rxf4 20.Bxf4 Ng6 21.Be3 Qd7 22.Bd4 Re8 23.Rf1 Rf8 24.Re1 b5








A mistake which allows white to gain a free pawn.

 25.cxb5 axb5 26.a4










White doesn’t capture the free pawn available and overlooks it.

bxa4 27.bxa4 Bc4 28.Kh2 Qf5 29.Re7 Rf7 30.Re8+ Rf8 31.Re7 Rf7 32.Re8+ Rf8 33.Re7









A three fold repetition and draw.





28.Steinitz Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. f4 d5

  4. d3

In the Steinitz Variation, white on the outer looks to be defending the pawn on the e4 but if e4 pawn is not defended then once f4 takes e5 knight grabs the e4 pawn and this further advance of knight must be prevented by the move d3 which allows white to have a grasp on the e5 pawn on the next move. If black grabs f4 then white holds the edge as his dark squared bishop gets a comfortable square to hold on to. Thus the pawn move has quite a significant role.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.d3 d4 5.Nce2 Nc6 6.Nf3 Bg4 7.fxe5 Nh5 8.Neg1 Nxe5 9.Be2 Ng6 10.Nxd4








The defender moves out away from his role.

Qh4+ 11.g3 Nxg3 12.hxg3 Qxh1 13.Be3 h5 14.Bxg4 hxg4 15.c3 Ne5 16.Qa4+ c6 17.0-0-0 Qg2 18.Kb1 Bc5 19.Nf5 Bxe3 20.Nxe3 Qf2 21.Qd4 Rh2 22.c4 f6 23.Rf1 Qxg3 24.Ka1 Rd8 25.Qxa7 Nxd3 26.Nf5 Qe5 27.Nxg7+ Kf8





29.Breyer Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. f4 d5

  4. fxe5 Nxe4

  5. Nf3 Be7

In the Breyer Variation, black knight hops onto the e4 square thereby allowing for the exchange of the knight. This is rather a more balanced structure for black which helps in the offense and the defense. The bishop if present on c5 would have been at the offense but on the e7 it is being prepared for both cases.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.Nf3 Be7 6.Qe2 Nxc3 7.dxc3 c5 8.Bf4 Nc6 9.0-0-0 Be6 10.h4 Qa5 11.a3 Rb8 12.Bg5 b5 13.Bxe7 Kxe7 14.Qe3 b4 15.cxb4 cxb4 16.a4 Qxa4 17.Qc5+ Kd7 18.Nd4 Rhc8 19.Bb5 Rxb5 20.Nxb5 Nxe5









This move blunders a piece.






30.Kaufmann Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. f4 d5

  4. fxe5 Nxe4

  5. Nf3 Bg4

  6. Qe2

The Kaufmann Variation of the Vienna game involves developing the queen on the e2 square. Though this might be blocking the light square bishop from its development white is focusing his plan to castle on the queen side after developing the dark squared bishop. Also even if the b5 square looks vulnerable,white queen cannot proceed towards the black’s queenside as white’s king side becomes very much vulnerable to attack.

1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.Nf3 Bg4 6.Qe2 Ng5 7.d4 Ne6 8.Be3 Qd7 9.0-0-0 Nc6 10.h3 Bxf3 11.Qxf3 Ne7








A retreat after a small provocation of the attack on the pawn which hinders development and king safety.

12.g4 g6 13.Bg2 c6 14.Rhf1 Ng8 15.h4 h6 16.Bh3 Rh7 17.g5 Be7 18.h5 hxg5 19.hxg6 fxg6 20.Rh1 Nh6 21.Qg2 0-0-0 22.Bxe6 Qxe6 23.Bxg5 Bxg5+ 24.Qxg5 Rdh8 25.Rdg1 Nf5 26.Rxh7 Rxh7 27.Ne2 Rg7 28.Nf4 Qe7 29.Qg4 Qh4 30.Qxh4 Nxh4 31.Rg4 Nf5 32.c3 Ne7 33.Kd2 Kd7 34.Ke3 Ke8 35.Kf2 Rh7 36.Kg1 Kf7 37.b3 Rh6 38.c4 dxc4 39.bxc4 Nf5 40.Ng2 Rh3 41.d5 cxd5 42.cxd5 Rd3 43.d6 Rd4 44.Ne3 g5 45.e6+








A sacrifice of a pawn unasked for.










A mistake not accepting the sacrifice.

46.d7 Rd2 47.Rg2 Rxg2+ 48.Nxg2





31.Bardeleben Variation

  1. e4 e5

  2. Nc3 Nf6

  3. f4 d5

  4. fxe5 Nxe4

  5. Qf3 f5








The move f5 gives a great stronghold of the knight though it may seem that white can have a supported passer in the next few moves, the game is not decisive as the middle game is in the process and black can counter white’s attem